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Tents, or ‘chums’, shield herders from temperatures of -45 Celsius (-40F).

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A Nenets herder rounds up his reindeers. The meat is sold to sausage factories and the horns to China for use as aphrodisiacs.

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Portrait of Andrei, a tank driver for an oil and gas prospecting company. Drivers typically work in the isolated Arctic tundra for the entire winter, returning to civilisation only in spring.

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A LUKoil worker repairs a leaking pipe, home to some of the world's largest natural gas deposits.

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A tank driver rubs himself with snow while using a sauna in the Arctic tundra. The water is heated by the diesel tank on the left.

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A monument stands above Murmansk, the world's largest Arctic city and a vital industrial and shipping hub. The city became a strategic base during the Cold War.

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Coal miner Karp Belgayev walks through the abandoned Arctic town where he is among the last ten inhabitants. Most others left after the closure of the Soviet-era coal mine. Coal dust gathered around his eyes left unwashed during years working in the Arctic cold has left permanent black rings.

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Gas emitted from the mining combine in this Russian Arctic town kills almost all vegetation within a 5 km radius. The combine, built in 1937 during Stalin's reign, emits sulphur dioxide -- the cause of acid rain.

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Valery Zhukov, a laid-off miner and union representative in a coal mine, is comforted by his lover Lena.

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Lights shine from the last occupied flat in an apartment block. With the outside temperature sometimes reaching -40C, the remaining family is at risk of death if the heating is down for just a few hours.